Definition and scope of anthropology

Anthropology is the study of humans as biological beings and as social beings. The scope of the study includes the study of anthropology, physical anthropology and cultural anthropology. Physical anthropology includes palaeoantropologi and Somatology. While covering cultural anthropology: archeology, linguistics, social anthropology (ethnography and ethnology), prehistori.
Anthropological studies generally place more emphasis on the culture or the results of human culture. It can be understood as the culture itself has intrinsic properties.
Intrinsic properties of culture:1. manifested and channeled culture of human behavior2. culture has been there first rather than the birth of a certain generation and will not die with the expiration of the relevant age generation3. required by human culture and is manifested in behavior4. culture include rules containing obligations, accepted and rejected actions, actions prohibited and actions permitted.
Factors that affect every community cultural differences include: natural factors, that habit, regional factors, social factorsThe elements of the cause of culture tends to persist is the element of ideology, belief or religious elements, elements of art, and language elements.These elements are likely to change is the cause of cultural elements livelihoods, technological system elements, the element of knowledge.
Culture works to help people in meeting their needs.Needs of human life:1. Biological needs (eating, drinking, resting, small and large bowel, the protection of the climate and weather, the release of sex drive)2. Social needs (activities together, communicate with each other, social order and social control, education)3. Psychological needs (relaxation of tensions and relax, romance and love, altruistic satisfaction, honor, ego satisfaction).
Obtained human culture through the process of learning in the community and the environment. The learning process through its various stages.1. The process of internalization (development or cultivation of a wide range of feelings, desires, passions, and emotions in the individual's personality)2. The process of enculturation (learning and adjusting his attitude of mind as well as the customs, system of norms and rules of living in a culture)3. The process of socialization (learning patterns of action in interaction with all kinds of people around who occupy a wide range of social feeling).


Forms of earth

The surface of the earth was not flat like the previous allegations, but there was a lower high. Appearance on the surface of the Earth is often called the relief, the high and low state of the earth's surface. Relief is not only found on the mainland, but also present in the ocean.

Earth is divided into several layers, including:
a. Core (barisfer) consisting of nickel and Ferrum (NiFe) solid
b. Asthenosphere or mediator layer, a layer of liquid and incandescent
c. The lithosphere is the outer layer of the earth. This layer consists of a layer of aluminum silisium (unlucky) and silisium magnesium (sima).

Based on the theory of plate tectonics states that the Earth consists of several major plates and extra plates. The plate is divided into two major continental plates and oceanic plates, cover plates Asia, straightforward African American plate, Pacific Plate, Australian Plate, and Antarctic plates. The plates are not stationary but moving at a speed varying between 3-6 cm per year with different motions. In between there is the movement of these plates are colliding (convergent), nothing apart (divergent), and there's a rub against each other.

The two plates are colliding with the Asian plate as the Australian plate is formed mountain trails, trenches and seismic lines. The plates are rubbing together will form section. While the plates are far from each other will be formed ridge (ridge) or cracks.

As a result of the movement of the plates that form the earth there as there is today. These movements were the result of an enormous power contained in the earth.


Materials released by the volcano (eruption)

1. The solid material (efflata)
According to the original:
a. Efflata allogen; derived from rocks around the crater that was thrown during an eruption
b. Efflata autogen; derived from the work of an explosive volcanic magma erupts.

According to the size of the material
a. Volcanic Bomb, is a big eflata
b. Lapilli, which amounted seed is efflata pecan
c. sand
d. Volcanic ash and dust.

2. liquid materials
a. Lava is magma flow on the surface of the earth
b. Lava lava is a mixture of sand, mud or water.

3. Materials gas (exhalation)
a. Fumaroles or nitrogen (N2)
b. Solfatar or sulfur (H2N)
c. Mofet or carbonic acid gas (CO2).

Signs volcano will erupt (pre-volcanic)
1. temperature or the temperature of the surrounding mountains rise
2. water sources dry up in the surrounding mountains
3. an earthquake
4. animals around the mountain many who move
5. plants around the mountain wither and die.

Signs or symptoms of post (post) volcanic
Is a sign that indicates that in the area were ever volcanic eruptions. The signs include:
1. Exhalation or gas source, usually in the form of:
a. Solfatar (sulfur)
b. Fumaroles (steam hot water)
c. Mofet (carbonic acid gas).

2. Hot springs, for example in the area of ​​Cipanas (West Java).

3. Mineral water sources (makdani), for example in Ciater.

4. Geyser, is the hot springs emanating periodically, eg in Cisolok (West Java).

Influence or benefit volcanism
1. volcanic ash soil fertility
2. volcano is a natural tourist destination attractive
3. can accelerate the process of orographic rain
4. produces industrial minerals such as sand, sulfur, stone, pumice, etc.
5. destruction of volcanic rock that contains nutrients that are beneficial to plants
6. magma intrusion area can contain minerals that humans need such as gold, silver, marble, and others.


Normal force and frictional force

Normal forceA body lies on a plane, then the field will provide a force on the direction perpendicular to the field. The style is called the normal force and given the symbol N.According to Newton's Law of I beam that dwell on the field or flat board policies: F = 0N - w = 0N = 0N = m.g
Description:N = normal force (N)w = weight of the object (N)m = mass of object (kg)g = the speed of gravity (m/s2)
Frictional forceDuring the move on a plane, the beam is accelerated average direction opposite to the direction of motion. So long as the beam moves opposite force is the driving force. In other words, the plane wearing a friction force to the beam.Thus, the friction force is the force going two objects come into contact, and there is relative motion between the two. This frictional force is always hinder the motion of objects.Frictional force between the two fields tangent magnitude depends on the coefficient of friction between the two fields tangent and normal fields. Frictional force is written as the following equation:
f = . N
caption:f = friction force (N) = coefficient of frictionN = normal force (N)
In everyday life there are adverse frictional force, but there is also a benefit. Some examples of harmful friction force is as follows:1) direct friction between engine parts can cause heat so the engine will be damaged. Therefore, given the vehicle's engine so that the surface-surface oil separated by the oil so it does not rub against each other directly.2) The friction between vehicle tires with the road surface will reduce kelajuannya. Friction force can be reduced by paving the road surface so that the vehicle can drive smoothly and quickly.3) Friction of air or wind up with a car can reduce kelajuannya. Frictional force is overcome by the aerodynamic shape of the car is made so that the car can go fast and agile.
The coefficient of static friction is the coefficient of friction when the object is stationary or right will move. The coefficient of kinetic friction is the coefficient of friction when the object is moving. Large coefficient of static friction is greater than the coefficient of kinetic friction.
Some examples of favorable friction force is as follows:1) We can walk on the ground or the floor because of the friction force between the surface of the floor footwear2) The principle of friction on the brake disc (disc) bicycle or motorcycle and the friction between the rubber brake velk wheels on the bike used to slow down the pace3) air friction slows the movement speed of jumpers that can be landed safely.
Friction force is a force that is not conservative. That is, the work done by the friction force depends on the track and also the friction force always opposes the direction of motion of objects so that the force of friction always does negative effort. Generally, this business is converted into thermal energy (heat).


Conserve natural resources

That natural resources can be beneficial in the long run then things really need to be implemented the following:a. Natural resources must be managed in order to gain the maximum benefit, but the management of natural resources should be sought in order to remain sustainable productivityb. Exploitation should be under the limit regeneration or assimilation of natural resourcesc. Required discretion in the use of natural resources to be managed and sustained by instilling an attitude in harmony with the environment.d. In the management of the natural resources necessary to the following considerations:1) The technology used is not to damage the resource capacity for renewal2) Most of the crops should be used to ensure the growth of the natural resources3) The negative impact management should participate managed, for example by recycling4) The management must be simultaneously accompanied by a process of reform.Man is distinguished from other biological resources because humans have a culture, will, and mind not possessed by plants and animals. Although the highest rank, humans interact with the environment so that one of the factors included in interdependence. Unlike other biological resources, the use of human resources is divided as follows:a. Man as a physical resourceWith the stored energy in human muscles can work in various fields, such as: the field of industry, transport, farming, fishing, forestry, and animal husbandry.b. Humans as mental resourcesThe ability of human thinking is a natural resource which is very important, because thinking is the main foundation for the culture. Man as civilized beings, capable of processing natural resources for the benefit of his life and was able to change the state of the natural resources thanks to advances in science and technology. With reasonable and virtuous, human use of natural resources with wisdom. Therefore, man is not seen only as an energy source, but the most significant is the source of creativity (mental resources) that is essential for the development of human culture.


Folds and faults

Folds (wrinkles), which is the horizontal movement of the earth causes wrinkled skin layers. Example:- Mountains-old mountains, such as the Ural Mountains and Allegani on primary day- Mountains-young mountains, such as the Mediterranean and circum Pacific Mountains (in the time of tertiary).
Folding occurs because of the pressure fell on a passage in a long time and had no faults. The top folds called antiklinorium, and the valley is called sinklinorium. Peaks and valleys in the upper small and sinklinorium antiklinorium called abtiklin. If there is severe then it will be known folding geantiklinal and geosinklinal.
Fracture occurs due to the pressure of strong and fast, so the rocks are separated from each other. The area along the fault usually is the epicenter for always shifting crust rocks. The terms associated with fractures among others graben (slenk), horst, fault scrap.a) Graben is ground down, which is a depression formed between two faults or decrease in the middleb) Horst is ground up, when the fault between the two raptured to be higher than the surroundingc) Fault scrap which is a steep wall (cliff) generated by a fault, on one block shift up into the higher.
If the power of the endogenous opposite direction to the other is not frontal, it raises the possibility of a so-called fault friction (horizontal shift).
Fault can be divided into two kinds, namely:a. Dekstral that if we stand in one big piece, that piece before we move to the rightb. Sinistral, ie if instead, cuts in front of us shifted our direction.
Forms of vertical shift is the transition from a crease, a result of increased endogenous labor force called fleksur. As a result of endogenous force formed cracks that many in an area, there is a rise, some fall, some tilted, so that there was a mountain of complex fault blocks consist of the lithosphere, called block mountain.
Fault are world famous in eastern Africa around Lake Nyasa, Tanganyika, Mount Kilimanjaro and Kenya, Lake Rudolf, via Addis Ababa, to the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea along the Gulf of Akaba, Jordan River up to Lake Tibertas in the Middle East. While in the U.S. there are around the Mississippi River, the Amazon River.


The pattern of urban spatial

There are several theories about the spatial patterns of cities:1. The theory of concentricThe theory was developed by Ernest W. Burgess who examined the city of Chicago. According to this theory the pattern of land use in the city following the zones of concentric circles (circular). The structure of land use are grouped into six concentric zones, namely:a. Zone Regional Activity Centre (PDK)PDK territory or in a foreign language Central Business District (CBD) is the central urban areas characterized by buildings, shopping centers, post offices, banks, cinemas, markets, etc..b. Transition zone (transitional)This area is the area of ​​manufacturing, light factories and respected community residences.c. Zone low-income housing communitiesThis area is home to a small workers.d. Middle income residential zoneThis zone is a middle-income residential areas such as civil servants, military, merchants, etc..e. Zone elite residential communityThis zone is characterized by the area inhabited by the elite rich people like executives, businessmen and officials.f. Zone commuter (suburban)Zone is characterized by the presence of the commuters (commuters) who work in the city during the evening but back home in the suburbs.
2. Theory sectoralSectoral theory proposed by Homer Hoyt. He argues that land use patterns in cities tend to develop following sectors are more free than by concentric circles.The existence of sectoral usage patterns shaped elongated shape caused the land and road development as a means of communication and transport routes. This is due to location of human settlements tend to follow the path of the road.
3. Core Theory of MultipleThis theory was put forward by C.D. Harris and E.L. Ullman. This theory is actually a critique of the theory of concentric and sectoral theory. According to this theory the development of the city is not growing like concentric and sectoral theory because in the city there are certain places that serve as the core of the city as industrial areas, ports and road networks, complex universities, etc.. In the sense that the center of not one, but multiple.


The food is healthy and nutritious

Every day people need food. Various types of food we eat. The food we eat everyday must meet health requirements. Qualified health foods are healthy foods. Healthy food is food that is clean, does not contain the seeds of disease, nutritional content balanced, and free of preservatives.
The food that goes into our bodies are crushed and destroyed so that it becomes nourishment. Nutrients are substances that can be absorbed from food and circulate blood.
Not all food can be digested by our digestive tract. Parts that can not be digested food is called food waste or food residue. The rest of the food we spend with feces through the release.
In order for the body to remain healthy, we must exercise regularly. Besides exercise, we also need to eat foods that are healthy and nutritious. Nutritious food is a food that contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals.
The menu is the arrangement of the types of nutritious food to meet the needs of the body and arranged varied. The benefits of a balanced diet plan ...a. In order not to boreb. For your body to get a nutritious meal every dayc. In order to increase appetite.
Four of five perfectly healthy food consists of staple foods, side dishes, vegetables, fruits, and milk.
Artificial additives are not good for health as it can damage the parts of our body and can make the body poisoning. Preservatives, coloring, and flavoring food source may be used does not exceed the limits permitted by the Ministry of Health.
Before we eat a variety of foods, we must be careful and observant. If we buy food wrapped in tin, then it needs to be seen during expiration and canned forms must be in good condition and not damaged (corroded).
The characteristics or signs of food or drink that has been damaged, among others:- It smells offensive- The color and shape changing blackish- Its surface is wet and juicy- It does not taste good.