Body Organ Systems in Vertebrates

Motion system
Have an active form of locomotor muscles and have limbs in pairs.

Circulatory system
Heart grow well, with the ventricles (booth space) and atrium (porch), there are bears two, three or four.

Digestive system
The digestive system is perfect, extending from the mouth to the anus at the base of the spine. Generally have teeth, tongue, and two pairs of jaws, except on Agnatha (Cyclostomata). There are liver and pancreas.

Respiratory system
Gills in vertebrates that live in the water, and lung in vertebrates that live on land.

Excretory system
Has a pair of kidneys. Some are having bladder.

The senses and the nervous system
Have a central nervous system such as brain and spinal cord. Generally have a pair of eyes, ears, and have hormonal glands.

Reproductive system
Reproductive pairs, except at Aves females only have one ovary left. Separate sex or hermaphrodite in larvae and as adults as animal Diesis (married two). External or internal fertilization. There are ovipar, vivipar, or ovovivipar.

Linear regression

Linear regression was used to describe the line that indicates the relationship between two variables. The regression line is often referred to as a line on the estimated / forecast. By studying the regression line we can show relationships influence of variable x to variable y and predicted. There are two ways / methods illustrate the regression line, namely hands free and the number of the least squares method.

a. Methods hands free
Draw a regression line of the existing data in the scatter diagram freely essentially every person who makes the line can be different from one another so that the drawing with this method is subjective. Because of its subjective, this method can not be used to forecast / predict.

b. Method of least squares sum
Linear regression line that will be described by the following equation as a linear function.
Y = a + bx

Financial Accounting Standards

Financial Accounting Standards are guidelines that must be a reference in the preparation of financial statements for the purpose of reporting to users outside the company's management. In order for the information presented in the financial statements are not misleading and do not give rise to misunderstandings. As a basic guideline preparation and presentation of financial statements, financial accounting standards absolutely need to be developed in line with the development of the business world. Indonesian Accountants Association (IAI) as the organization of the accounting profession in Indonesia, in 1973 had succeeded in preparing accounting standards applicable in Indonesia known as the Indonesian Accounting Principles (PAI). After several revisions to the Indonesian Accounting Principles, since 1994 Indonesia has had Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements, as well as a set of accounting standards which Setarap international standards.

Statistics and Economics

Statistics are a very valuable tool in studying and solving the economic problems and the formulation of economic policies such as production, supply and demand, consumption, price development, wage policy, and others.
Keep in mind that the statistics have limitations as follows.
a. Statistics are only used for the quantitative data.
b. Statistics do not discuss individual data.
c. Statistics can only be used for someone who understands statistics.
d. Statistics can not be used to prove anything.
e. Statistics can not provide definitive conclusions or final,
f. Interpretation of the data is very dependent on the decision-making considerations that are sometimes heavily influenced by various factors, whether they are social, economic, and political.

Seasonal Variation Analysis

Seasonal variations related to changes or fluctuations in certain seasons or years. Here are examples of some seasonal variations.
1. Agricultural Production
Agricultural production is heavily influenced seasons because of crop, livestock, and fish need sunlight and water to produce. Seasonal variations seen in rice production. In the first quarter production increased and continued to decline in the second and third quarters. Such incident will be repeated annually.

2. Inflation
Inflation in one of the well fluctuates, sometimes rise sometimes down. Fluctuations occur due to changes in prices associated with the request. The increase in demand causes prices to rise, inflation rose, and vice versa. Increasing demand occurs during Idul Fitri and Christmas day.

3. Share Price
Stock prices, as reflected by the stock price index also experienced variations every day. The increase in the company's stock price due to the positive sentiment CPO exporter such as improvement in CPO prices, the exchange rate strengthened and improved the company's performance. Negative sentiment as the war led to a decline in CPO prices.

The characteristics of living things

The characteristics of living beings:
a. nutrition
food as a constituent of living beings.
b. movement
as their activity to earn a living and live accordingly.
c. reproduction / breeding
living beings should be able to preserve their offspring
d. metabolism
living beings perform formation of substances (synthesis) and the breakdown of complex substances into simple
e. grow and thrive
due anabolism / catabolism of living beings develops and evolves
f. sensitive to stimuli (irritability).