7.04.2015

Understanding petroleum

Petroleum derived from marine microorganisms and animals buried for millions of years ago and settles on the sea floor. Making oil from the ground by drilling. Drilling is carried to the point of it being a source of petroleum. Then the oil is still mixed with mud is pumped out and channeled through the pipes into the plant. In the oil mill cleaned or processed. From the processing or refining of oil will be produced a variety of materials, among others:
a. Gasoline to fuel motor vehicles
b. Kerosene or kerosene to fuel stoves and oil lamps
c. Vaseline for cosmetics, ointments mixture, and drugs
d. Paraffin for film-making materials
e. Diesel fuel for motor vehicle diesel
f. Lubricant oil for gear wheels
g. Asphalt as pavers

At the time of drilling the ground to get the oil fields, sometimes directly on a layer of gas. Gas out of the earth are called natural gas. LPG (Liquifield Petroleum Gas) is natural gas that is converted into liquid form (utilized so that the liquid). Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) used as fuel gas stove.

Definition of coal

Coal is also called coal. Coal derived from plants were buried by sediment marsh land a long time ago (millions of years ago). Because of its location on the earth, making coal mining manner, namely by creating tunnels in the ground. Workers should go down with the elevator up to hundreds of meters into the ground. Coal can be processed into artificial fibers, nylon, dyes, ammonia gas, camphor wood, glue, wood preservatives, paints, and so on. Coal is also used as fuel to drive electricity generators. Coal can also be made into synthetic rubber, plastics, gases, and explosives.

A source of electrical energy

Certain tools which could cause an electric current is called the source of electrical energy, as shown below.
a. A source of electrical energy: voltaic elements, dry elements, batteries, dynamos and electric motors.
b. Italian natural scientist, Alessandro Volta made an electric energy source known as voltaic elements. Voltaic elements is a source of electrical energy which can be quite large flow of electric current. Voltaic elements composed of slab zinc (Zn) and copper plates (Cu) were dipped in a solution of dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The reaction between the solution of dilute sulfuric acid and zinc lead zinc negatively charged plate. The reaction between the solution of dilute sulfuric acid and copper positively charged. If we connect the zinc plate with a small lamp, the lamp was lit up.
c. The batteries can supply power, because it is said batteries as a power source. Each power source can deliver electricity. Batteries of many kinds, there is a dry battery, there is also a wet battery.
d. Battery drug is a chemical substance called salmiak. Battery wet because there is fluid in the battery.
e. Bicycle dynamo consists of a U-shaped magnet and a coil. When the bicycle dynamo rotates, the coils are located in the center of the magnet rotates. Turnover magnet that causes an electric current.
f. Dynamo generator is very large.
g. Electricity from generating stations is channeled through the wire to the electrical substation. From this electric substation electric power supplied to places with removing it through wires anyway.

Electrical energy

Electrical energy can be useful after converted into another form of energy.
a. Electrical energy can be converted into thermal energy, or heat, or mechanical motion, light, sound, and magnetic fields.
b. Changes electrical energy into heat for example at soldering electric, electric irons, and electric stove.
c. Changes electrical energy into mechanical energy, for example in cars, fan and electric drill.
d. While the flashlight bulb and electrical energy is converted into light. Radio and tape recorder converts electrical energy into sound.
e. Two wires of different electrically charged (positive and negative) if contact can result in short circuit or konsluiting. Konsluiting causes electric current to be great, so that the wire or cable through which electric current would overheat and catch fire. This can be prevented by using a fuse.
f. Oersted found that electrical currents affect magnetism. This discovery in 1821.
g. An iron nail wound with copper wire. Then flow the electric current in the wire. The nails become is like a magnet.
h. Magnets made with electric current is called an electromagnet. Electromagnet temporary magnetic properties.
i. Faraday discovered that magnets which can cause an electric current is driven.
j. Electric motors widely used, for example, to turn on the motor vehicle and move the machine. The electric motor also uses electromagnets.
k. Electromagnet is a magnet that occur due to the flow of electricity in a coil. Electromagnets used in electric doorbell, telephone and so on.

Electric current

The flow of electricity can be connected through various forms of circuit.
a. So that an electrical current can function then it should be made an electrical circuit.
b. Electrical connections can be made the circuit in series, parallel and mixed (serial and parallel).
c. In a parallel circuit and circuit mix, an electric current flowing through the two branches or more. In the series circuit unbranched.
d. Rays of lights are connected in series and connected in parallel or in a mixture is not as bright.
e. The switch is a device to connect or disconnect the electric current circuit. For example, switch on the flashlight in the form of a pushbutton, to decide the electric current from the battery.
f. Two series connected lamps lit dimmer than two lamps connected in parallel.
g. When the light in a series circuit is interrupted, another lamp can not light up. But in a parallel circuit, when one light goes off, the lights remain lit another one.
h. Electrical circuits in the home are connected in parallel. Therefore, if we extinguish one of the lights, electrical appliances others did not participate extinguished.

Definition of electric current

Electric current is an electric charge from a power source that flows through the conductor. Here are the things that relate to electrical current.
a. Electric current flows from the charged much (positive pole) to place charged a little (negative pole).
b. Electric current can flow through a conductor that comes from certain materials only.
c. Substance or material that is easy to conduct electric current is called the conductor or conductors, for example silver, copper, iron, steel, and tin.
d. Objects that can not conduct electricity are called insulators, such as plastics, rubber, glass, wood and dried.
e. The size of the electric current expressed in units of ampere. A tool to measure the amount of electric current is called the ampere meter.

The function of blood

The function of blood in our body metabolism, among others, as a means of transport (dealers), regulating body temperature and the body's defenses. In the following section, we discuss the function of blood as a tool carrier or dealer.
a. Nutrients to circulate blood throughout the body
1. All the cells in our bodies need nutrients, for the development and activity of the cells.
2. Nutrients resulting from digestion in the stomach and intestines.
3. In the intestinal juices of the food is absorbed by the blood vessels are smooth (capillaries) and into the bloodstream.
4. Sari-sari food brought blood plasma through the arteries to be circulated to all parts of the body.

b. Blood circulate oxygen throughout the body
1. Oxygen is circulated throughout the body by red blood cells.
2. The blood is pumped from the heart of the right chamber to the lungs to release CO2 and taking O2 brought to the left atrium.
3. O2 channeled from the left atrium into the left ventricle.
4. From the left chamber of O2 carried throughout the body by red blood cells for combustion (oxidation).
5. Circulatory great that the blood circulation from the heart carries oxygen and nutrients throughout the body and carry carbon dioxide back to the heart.
6. Circulatory small that blood circulation from the heart to bring carbon dioxide to the lungs to pick up oxygen is removed and taken to heart.

Blood plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

Blood red liquid, somewhat viscous and sticky. Blood flow throughout the body and in direct contact with the cells in our bodies. Blood is made up of several elements, such as blood plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

a. Blood plasma
Blood plasma is the largest component in the blood, because more than half, the blood contains blood plasma. Almost 90% portion of the blood plasma is water. The function of blood plasma are:
1) Transporting nutrients to the cells and carrying combustion of the cell to the landfill.
2) Generating antibodies or antibodies against the disease.

b. Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
Red blood cells contain hemoglobin lot. Hemoglobin causes red blood is dark red. Red blood cells produced in the spleen or spleen, liver, bone marrow and red on the flat. Red blood cells are dead destroyed in the liver.

c. White blood cells (leukocytes)
White blood cell shape is not fixed. White blood cells are made in the red marrow, spleen and lymph nodes. Its function is very important, which is to eradicate germs.

d. Platelets (thrombocytes)
Blood platelets irregularly shaped and have no core. Manufactured in red marrow, as well as play an important role in blood clotting process.